The official ID2T repository is now in GitHub and can be found in

Patrick Jattke 51a5414390 - First public release 6 years ago
code 51a5414390 - First public release 6 years ago
code_boost 51a5414390 - First public release 6 years ago 51a5414390 - First public release 6 years ago 51a5414390 - First public release 6 years ago

ID2T - Intrusion Detection Dataset Toolkit

A toolkit for synthetic injection of attacks into network datasets.


As Intrusion Detection Systems encounter growing importance in the area of network security, the need of high quality network datasets for evaluation against real-world attacks rises.

Comparability of the results must be ensured by use of publicly available datasets. Existing datasets, however, suffer from several disadvantages. Often they do not provide ground trouth, consist of outdated traffic and do not contain any payload because of privacy reasons. Moreover, frequently datasets do not contain latest attacks and missing attack labels make it difficult to identify existing attacks and enable a transparent comparison of Intrusion Detection Systems.

The ID2T application was first proposed in [1] and targets the injection of attacks into existing network datasets. At first, it analyzes a given dataset and collects statistics from it. These statistics are stored into a local database. Next, these statistics can be used to define attack parameters for the injection of one or multiple attacks. Finally, the application creates the required attack packets and injects them into the existing file. Resulting in a new PCAP with the injected attacks and a label file indicating the position (timestamps) of the first and last attack packet.


[1] Cordero, Vasilomanolakis, Milanov et al.: ID2T: a DIY Dataset Creation Toolkit for Intrusion Detection System

Getting Started


ID2T is written for Python 3.4 and C++ 11. The main modules were developed in Python whereas the statistics collection and PCAP merging is performed, due to performance reasons, by a C++ module which uses the library Libtins. These modules are invoked in python by using Boost.Python.

Required Python Packages

The following non-standard packages are required to run ID2T. Missing packages can be installed from terminal via sudo pip install <packagename>.

  • scapy-python3: used for packet creation
  • lea: used for calculation of parameters derived by the gathered statistics


There is no installation required. Simply clone the repository to get started:

git clone

After making the main file executable sudo chmod +x, the application can be started by .\

Usage examples

In this section we provide some examples on how to use ID2T.

Injecting an attack into an existing dataset

In the following we inject the PortscanAttack into the dataset pcap_capture.pcap:

.\ -i /home/user/pcap_capture.pcap -a PortscanAttack ip.src= mac.src=32-08-24-DC-8D-27

Explanation: The parameter -i/--input takes the path to the PCAP file. This triggers the statistics calculation of the file. After the calculation, the statistics are stored into a SQLite database. If the statistics were already computed in an earlier run, the data is retrieved from the generated database. This saves time as the calculation of the statistics may take long time - depending on the PCAP file size.

An attack can be injected by providing -a/--attack followed by the attack name and the attack parameters. The available attacks and the allowed attack parameters vary, see section Attack Parameters for details. The parameter -a/--attack can be provided multiple times for injection of multiple attacks. In this case the attacks are injected sequentially.

Querying the statistics database

The statistics database supports queries of two different types:

  • standard SQL queries, called user-defined query, which are passed directly to the SQLite database,
    e.g. SELECT ipAddress from ip_statistics WHERE pktsSent>1000
  • pre-defined queries, called named query, which are like shortcuts for SQL queries,
    e.g. most_used(ipAddress), random(all(ipAddress))
    The named queries can further be divided into two classes:
    • selectors gather information from the database; the result can be a list of values, like all(ipAddress)
    • extractors can be applied on gathered data and always reduce the result set to a single element, e.g. random(...) returns a randomly chosen element of the list

A complete list of supported named queries can be found in section Named Queries.

These two types of queries can be executed either by providing the query string as an application argument or by going into the query mode. The application argument -q/--query takes a user-defined query or named query as input and prints the results to the terminal:

Execute query directly: .\ -i /home/user/pcap_capture.pcap -q <query>

If -q/--query is called without any argument, the application enters into the query mode. This mode is like a read-eval-print-loop (REPL) for SQL queries. In this mode the user can repetively provide a query (must end by ";"), send the query by pressing ENTER and see the response in the terminal:

Go into query mode: .\ -i /home/user/pcap_capture.pcap -q

Example output:

Input file: /home/user/pcap_capture.pcap
Located statistics database at: /home/pjattke/ID2T_data/db/99/137/81a0a71b0f36.sqlite3
Loaded file statistics in 0.00 sec from statistics database.
Entering into query mode...
Enter statement ending by ';' and press ENTER to send query. Exit by sending an empty query..
Query 'most_used(ipAddress);' returned:
Query 'avg(pktsSent);' returned:

Command reference

Application Arguments

By calling .\ -h, a list of available application arguments with a short description is shown.

Attack Parameters

In this section the allowed attack parameter for all available attacks are presented.

Portscan Attack

The PortscanAttack currently supports the following attack parameters:

Field name Description Notes
mac.src MAC address of the attacker
mac.dst MAC address of the victim
ip.src IP address of the attacker
ip.src.shuffle Randomizes the source IP address if port.src is a list of ports
ip.dst IP address of the attacker
port.src Ports used by the attacker Can be specified in different ways, e.g.: "22, 23, 24, 8080", "22-24, 8080"
port.src.shuffle Randomizes the source ports if port.src is a list of ports
port.dst Ports to be scanned Can be specified in different ways, e.g.: "22, 23, 24, 8080", "22-24, 8080"
port.dst.shuffle Randomizes the destination ports if port.dst is a list of ports Open ports at the victim's side Can be specified in different ways, e.g.: "22, 23, 24, 8080", "22-24, 8080"
port.dst.order-desc Changes the destination port order from ascending (False) to descending (True) Starts injecting the attack at the given unix timestamp
inject.after-pkt Starts injecting the attack after the given packet number
packets.per-second Number of packets sent per second by the attacker

Statistics DB Queries

SQL Queries

Querying the SQLite database by standard SQL queries requires knowledge about the database scheme. Therefore we provide a short overview about the tables and fields:

Table: ip_statistics

Field name Description
ipAddress IP Address of the host these statistics belong to
kybtesSent KBytes of data sent
kybtesReceived KBytes of data received
pktsSent Number of packets sent
pktsReceived Number of packets received

Table: ip_ttl

Field name Description
ipAddress IP Address of the host
ttlValue TTL value
ttlCount Number of packets using this TTL value

Table: ip_mac

Field name Description
ipAddress IP Address of the host
macAddress MAC Address of the host

Table: ip_ports

Field name Description
ipAddress IP Address of the host
portDirection If data was received on this port "in", if data was sent from this port "out"
portNumber Port number
portCount Number of packets using this port

Table: ip_protocols

Field name Description
ipAddress IP Address of the host
protocolName Name of the protocol, e.g. TCP, UDP, IPv4
protocolCount Number of packets using this protocol

Table: tcp_mss

Field name Description
ipAddress IP Address of the host
mss Maximum Segment Size (TCP option) used by the host

Named Queries

Selectors are named queries which return a single element or a list of elements, depending on the values in the database and the query.

For example, the named query most_used(ipAddress) may return a single IP address if the most used IP address, based on the sum of packets sent and received, is unique. If there are multiple IP addresses with the same number of packets sent plus packets received, a list of IP addresses is returned. As the user cannot know how many values are returned, the extractors are ignored if the result is a single element.

most_used(ipAddress | macAddress | portNumber | protocolName | ttlValue) 

least_used(ipAddress | macAddress | portNumber | protocolName | ttlValue) 

avg(pktsReceived | pktsSent | kbytesSent | kbytesReceived | ttlValue | mss) 

all(ipAddress | ttlValue | mss | macAddress | portNumber | protocolName) 

There are also parameterizable selectors which take conditions as input. Following two examples to show the syntax by example:

ipAddress(macAddress=AA:BB:CC:DD:EE:FF, pktsSent > 1000, kbytesReceived < 1000) 
-> returns one or multiple IP addresses matching the given criterias
Supports the fields: macAddress, ttlValue, ttlCount, portName, portNumber, portDirection, kbytesSent, kbytesReceived, pktsSent, pktsReceived, 

-> returns the MAC address matching the given criteria
Supports the field: ipAddress

Extractors are to be used on the result of a named query. If the result is a list, applying an extractor reduces the result set to a single element. If the result is already a single element, the extractor is ignored.

random(...)  -> returns a random element from a list
first(...)   -> returns the first element from a list
last(...)    -> returns the last element from a list

Attention: Named queries are designed to be combined with extractors, like random(all(ipAddress)). But it is currently NOT possible to encapsulate multiple named queries, like macAddress(ipAddress=most_used(ipAddress)). This can be circumvented by first querying most_used(ipAddress) and then inserting the result as argument in macAddress(…).


The SemVer is used for versioning. For currently available versions of ID2T, see page releases.

Release History

  • 0.1.0: Initial release
    • Added attack: Portscan Attack


  • Emmanouil Vasilomanolakis - contact person, idea of ID2T, guidance and suggestions during development

  • Carlos Garcia - idea of ID2T, guidance and suggestions during development

  • Nikolay Milanov - development of first prototype within his Master Thesis

  • Patrick Jattke - development of first public release within his Bachelor Thesis


Distributed under the MIT license. See LICENSE for more information.